Hey Hoze here is some info on the stings of Rays
The venom apparatus or "sting" of a stingray is a spine or modified dermal denticle (the scales covering sharks and stingrays) with two ventral grooves filled with venom-producing tissue. The venom apparatus is surrounded by a cell-rich covering or sheath that also may produce lesser amounts of venom. The venom itself is a largely protein-based toxin that causes great pain in mammals and may also alter heart rate and respiration. However, since it is proteinaceous, it can be inactivated by exposure to high temperatures. Because of this, immersion of the wound in hot water or application of a heat compress are recommended as an immediate treatment for unfortunate victims of a stingray injury or "envenomation." Although this may reduce the initial pain of a stingray injury, victims should still obtain medical assistance so that the wound can be properly examined and cleaned to avoid secondary infections or other complications.
As mentioned above, the sting on most pelagic stingrays is situated near the base of the tail. This may discourage predators from biting the animal near its vital organs. In contrast, the sting of most bottom-dwelling stingrays is located further away from the body, making it a more effective and dangerous "striking" weapon. However, it should be pointed out that the sting is purely a defensive weapon only and that the "striking" action is an involuntary response rather than a conscious "attack."
According to Dr. Bob Shipp, Ph.D. professor of the University of Alabama and authority on fishes of the Gulf of Mexico, the barb may be concealed within a sheathlike tail wrapping, depending on its size and species. The barb, or spine, according to Dr. Shipp, can grow back if broken off
, and is actually a modified scale, armored with recurved serrations that are as sharp as razors. The stingray has the ability to whip its tail up over its back and strike a victim. During the strike the tail sheath covering instantly moves back to expose the barb, located about one third the way down its tail (bluntnose and Atlantic species). In some instances it can whip its tail around a victim to exert a more powerful blow.According to Dr. Shipp, when a stingray strikes, it either removes its barb entirely, or breaks it off inside of the victim. When this occurs, doctors must probe the wound to make sure all particles have been removed, so the injury will not result in gangrene. In cases where the barb deeply penetrated, the wound must be enlarged to make sure it is properly cleaned.
Aside from the pain and serious laceration caused by the razor-sharp barb, which can sever arteries and possibly an Achilles tendon, a poison is released that can produce a drastic decrease in blood pressure, increased pulse, dizziness and possible shock.?